By 牧野成一, 1935- Seiichi Makino and Michio Tsutsui. 筒井通雄, ; Seiichi Makino; Michio Tsutsui

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3 Higgins (1979: 214) maintains that this relation “is not the expression of some kind of identity” and goes on to argue against the equative approach to specificational sentences. However, Higgins does not align his analysis with those involving predication either. He notes that “The whole notion of being „about‟ something is alien to a list”; “a list is neither „about‟ the heading of the list nor „about‟ the items on the list” (Higgins 1979: 214). To cement this distinction, Higgins chooses to discuss specificational sentences, not in terms of reference or predication, but using his own terminology.

In other words, the more properties that are inherited from other constructions, the more we can say that the construction is motivated, A constructional model of language change 21 or supported, by the language system. This means that we have an explanation as to why this particular construction with these particular formmeaning correspondences should be likely to exist in the language. Goldberg (2003: 120) notes that the requirement that every construction must be motivated is “What imbues a constructional approach with explanatory adequacy”.

Here, the landmark is an instance (ti) of a type specification (T), such as the category doctor or Chief of Services. A relation of identity holds between this instance and the trajector (Auschlander) within the domain of instantiation. Specification as (the inverse of) nominal predication 45 Figure 2. The predicate nominative construction (Langacker 1991: 68) On this account then, even sentences with indefinite NP predicates involve a relation of identity, rather than class-membership. According to Langacker (1991: 68), a class inclusion relation is only implied in such sentences.

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