By Morris Salkoff
1. desk of symbols, pxi; 2. Preface, pxiii; three. 1. creation, p1; four. 2. significant sentence constructions; the verb; the item, p25; five. three. The Noun word, p119; 6. four. Adjuncts, p167; 7. five. Conclusions; functions, p313; eight. References, p335; nine. Index, p339
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Additional resources for A French-English grammar : a contrastive grammar on translational principles
For what will this broom be used? The change of à (to) to for is obtained in the same way as was discussed above for intéresse, where à is replaced by in. The permutation of the preposition to the end of the sentence improves the translation considerably in these sentences: (20)d De quoi est fait ce gâteau? → What is this cake made of? e À quoi sert ce balai? → What is this broom used for? f À quoi servira ce balai? → What will this broom be used for? Note that the same object sequences can appear with a sentence containing subject inversion, as in (15); in this case, the resumptive pronoun is deleted as before, and the translation is the same as in (19): (21)a À qui cet homme s'intéresse-t-il?
Finding an English approximation to the intended meaning without introducing major changes in the sentence is not simple. The difficulty is that its meaning depends on the type of verb in the infinitive string. To capture this variability, bilingual dictionaries furnish examples in which the sentence is entirely rephrased, but such a total transformation would be a gargantuan (or impossible) task for an MT program. A simple but sufficient approximation is to translate this predicate as does indeed V Obj for verbs taking a complement clause as object, and as does somewhat V Obj for all other verbs: (21)a Max n'est pas sans (savoir + s'imaginer + se douter) que Ph → Max does indeed (know + imagine + suspect) that S b L'armée n'est pas sans (courir des risques dans cette bataille + craindre des représailles) → The army does somewhat (run some risks in this battle + fear reprisals) Note that the problem of translating correctly the small nuance of meaning carried by ne pas être sans can be avoided simply by deleting it: without ne pas être sans, the 22 A FRENCH-ENGLISH GRAMMAR translations of (21) would become Max knows that S and The army runs some risks in this battle.
In whom does this man interest himself? b Vers quelle rue ce chemin conduit-il? → Towards which street does this road lead? If the main verb is être, then the English word order is the same as the French: (22)a Quelle est l'importance de cela? → What is the importance of that? b De quelle couleur était le mur? → What color was the wall? 34 A FRENCH-ENGLISH GRAMMAR (ii) [qui + NP(qu-)] tV Obj The order is the same in English: (23)a Lequel est tombé? → Which one has fallen? b Qui lit ce livre? reads + is reading) this book?