By Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik

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For example, the relation between the room in [1] and the other elements in that sentence is very different from the relation between the girl in [5] and its fellow elements, though both are labelled 'object'. Even more obviously, perhaps, the two elements labelled 'object* in [5] play sharply distinct roles in this sentence. We need in fact to distinguish two types of object and two types of complement in the sentences so far illustrated: ,. 19 we shall attempt semantic generalizations characterizing the function of the direct object.

Compare Where is Mary? •Where isn't Mary? ', used as polite requests, likewise have no assertion form -■though (a final point of parallel between negative and interrogative) they56 The sentence: a preliminary viaw have a corresponding negative statement form, used as a tentative expression of desire: I wouldn't mind a cup of coffee. Shall we stop at the next village? (*I would mind a cup of coffee. ). " Where Isn't Mary! '' Yes I w6uld mind! 24 Other processes Interrogation and negation may be thought of as 'sentence processes': they are ways in which we may think of ourselves as taking a ready-made statement (and even a question like' Who is John 7' presupposes a statement 'John is X') and giving it a different dimension of meaning largely by replacing or adding constituents.

The three Appendices deal with aspects of English which, though strictly, peripheral to grammar, nevertheless impinge upon it at various points necessitating frequent reference in the body of the book to the topics concerned. They are word-formation 53 (App I); stress, rhythm, and intonation (App II); and finally, the system of punctuation (App III). Each of the chapters and appendices ends with a bibliographical note Si guidance on further reading relevant to the material just pre-60 The sentence: a preliminary view sented.

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