By Terry Lynn Todd

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Hadank (1932:63-64) reported optional gender markers. 1). The gender of some nouns is observable from their phonemic shapes. Nouns which end in unstressed /i/ or /:/ <ı> are always feminine in gender and those which end in stressed / / or /:/ <ı> are always masculine. But when a noun ends in stressed /i/ or in a consonant its gender cannot be determined from its phonemic shape. 01. B #? '# A B $%# A =E;= #B # @E# E#B E# Nouns denoting professions, occupations and societal roles have variable gender depending on the sex of the referent.

I-i/ → /ij/ → /i/ Thus this sequence of rules gives a noun the singular of which ends in /i/ a homophonous plural. A The /i/ that results from these two rules is no longer than the uncompounded form. /e/ <ê> is a slightly lowered mid close front unrounded tense vowel [e]. It is not as high and close as are the German and French /e/ and has no offglide as does the nearest English approximation. In closed syllables it becomes slightly lower and more open. /e/ → [c] / __C . "A ,2*( = = ] _ @ NB C"0 !

Vs. /R/ ,L<( =U: = @/ /I B C' # S0A ,LD( =UR = @/ / B C ! " "A ,*)( =4: 9F:= @44IVF IVFIB CY0 ! 3 Back Rounded Vowel Phonemes The tense vowel /u/ <û> is relatively infrequent in unstressed position and the lax central vowel /R/ is relatively infrequent in stressed position. Nevertheless, they do contrast in stressed and unstressed positions. /u/ <û> vs. # $%#A ,*L( =;97R= @##P B C3 $! "A @G G "I "IGB C 9 :G= ,*M( =GR9":G= /A The following examples contrast the phonemes /u/ <û>, /R/ , and /o/ .

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