By John Peterson

Kharia, spoken in central-eastern India, is a member of the southern department of the Munda relatives, which varieties the western department of the Austro-Asiatic phylum, stretching from important India to Vietnam. the current learn offers the main large description of Kharia so far and covers all significant components of the grammar. Of specific curiosity within the number of Kharia defined right here, is that there's no proof for assuming the life of parts-of-speech, reminiscent of noun, adjective and verb. quite features reminiscent of reference, amendment and predication are expressed by means of one in all syntactic constructions, pointed out the following as 'syntagmas'. the quantity might be of equivalent curiosity to normal linguists from the fields of typology, linguistic concept, areal linguistics, Munda linguistics in addition to South Asianists mostly.

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During my first two visits to Jharkhand in 2001 and 2002, Hindi was the language of consultation, except with Mr. Anil Kullu, with whom English was used. However, beginning with the third trip to Jharkhand in 2003, all interviews were conducted monolingually in Kharia. ariah1rnl 16 CHAP1ERONE southern and western Simdega district in one group and those from other regions in the other. Where such differences of opinion were noted, the variety of the "Simdega" group is discussed in this grammar in detail, and the other variety, referred to here for ease of reference as the "Gumla" variety, is mentioned in passing.

El 'come' /of vs. /e/: kolo1J 'bread' I kole1J 'king' go~· 'die' I ge~· 'pluck (fruit)' /of vs. /u/: kayo 'wind' I kuyu 'pot' mo'l 'smoke' I mu'l 'emerge' ro'l 'spill' I ru'l 'open' go~· 'die' I gu~· 'puff (of grain)' po1ci 'sprout, grow' I pu 1ci 'jump, spring' oso1J 'bitter' I OSU1J 'bewitch' Iii vs /o/: tomsi1J 'wasp, hornet' I timso1J 'fire' Iii vs. 2 Diphthongs Rehberg (2003: 6) lists the following five units as diphthongs. The phonetic values given here are their most common realizations.

Further research on this topic is necessary. 5 See note 1 above. 6 Note also that 1he number of speakers given in the 151h edition of 1he Ethnologue for all speakers in bo1h India and Nepal is only slightly higher 1han the number of speakers in India: 293,575. The number of speakers for India is given as the same in 1he 16th edition (Lewis, 2009), al1hough the figure for all countries is slightly higher: 293,580. INTRODUCTION 1HE KHARIA LANGUAGE 7 There is a growing movement to promote Kharia, both through various organizations as well as in the schools.

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