By Jayant Narlikar

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Mc –Si has been predicted in many contents to become the dominant substrate material in the future. That is mainly due to significantly lower price of the mc-Si compared to the single crystalline material. Availability of solar grade silicon may also play a crucial role in the future because the markets of photovoltaic energy systems have been predicted to grow more than 20% annually. Solar grade silicon has been traditionally fabricated from the "scrap" of the electronics grade silicon. In order to meet the frequently presented predictions about solar cell production, there is simply not enough available waste silicon from the microelectronics industry.

Phosphorous atoms can be transported to silicon wafers in gaseous or in liquid phase. Gas phase diffusion is carried out in quartz tube furnaces by leading phosphine or phosphorous oxycloride to the furnace tube. An alternative method is to use solid phosphorous source wafers which are stacked between the silicon wafers. At high temperatures phosphorous is transported to silicon wafers with the help of inert carrier gas. The advantage of gas phase diffusion is the homogeneous doping profile it gives, and the cleanliness of the diffusion sources compared to the liquid phase diffusion.

The spin –on glass residuals, presented in the figure above, are unacceptable because they shadow light, prevent contact formation and increase leakage current significantly. RCA 1 clean is an effective method for SOD residual removal, because of its ability to strip away organic contamination. Hydroxide ions, however, provide a negative surface potential which is unfortunately opposite to what is needed for field effect passivation of solar cells. Therefore the SOD removal is finished with a RCA 2 clean.

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