By D. Stewart

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1 Predicating truth 27 is equivalent to (6), and the 'him' of (6) plays the role of a variable bound by the quantifkational expression 'some man'. Proposition (6) is the ordinary-language version of' For some x, x is a man and Edith married x and Alice married x\ Substitution instances of this and of its ordinary-language equivalent, (6), on the other hand, are conjunctive propositions like (8), and thus replaceable by sentences containing 'whom' where 'whom' has the same role as 'who' in (7). But they are conjunctive propositions whose second conjunct repeats an element which occurred in the first conjunct.

The force of 'Edith married Harry, and he was a butcher' is no different from that of 'Edith married Harry, and Harry was a butcher'. That is to say, the 'he' in (8) can be replaced, without change of truth-value or sense, by the name it goes proxy for, 'Harry'. The use of 'he' rather than 'Harry' in this sentence is dictated by stylistic considerations only. It is in no way required by the logic of the proposition. Geach calls pronouns of this sort ' pronouns of laziness'. 1 Replacing 'him' in the second conjunct by its antecedent from the first conjunct, 'some man', would altogether change the force of the proposition.

But ex hypothesi this is true. These considerations, as far as they go, are persuasive. They seem to force us to deny that every expression formed by removing a proper name from a proposition can, without straining the ordinary sense of words, be said to yield a predicate. 'John is tall and — is married' cannot easily be regarded as producing a false predication about Mary when, though John is short, Mary is married and the blank in the expression is filled with Mary's name. I say, hesitantly, that these considerations are persuasive ' as far as they go'.

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