By James L Bittle; Frederick A Murphy

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A. Sendai Virus. , 1953), is a parainfluenza type 1 virus t h a t causes respiratory disease in mice, rats, hamsters, and swine. The disease occurs either in an acute-short duration form or a chronic-persistent, clinically inapparent form. Spread is by either direct contact or by aerosol. In mouse colonies, this disease is difficult to control because the virus is so highly infective. Immunization. Formalin-inactivated vaccines have been effective in controlling the disease in mice and rats (Fukumi and Takeuchi, 1975; Eaton et al, 1982; Tsukui et al, 1982).

The vaccine is administered to pregnant cows near the end of gestation and stimulates colostral antibodies that offer protection to nursing calves. With the exception of avian infectious bronchitis, most Coronavirus VACCINES PRODUCED BY CONVENTIONAL MEANS 35 infections have been difficult to control with vaccines. Perhaps this is because primary lesions are in mucous membranes of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, sequestered from immune reactivity. Coronaviruses produce about 15% of common colds in man, second only to rhino viruses.

This pathogen infects humans only; there is no suitable animal model for typhoid fever. Immunization. Few vaccines have been developed for Salmonella, and most are of low efficacy with undesirable side-effects. Live vaccines are more effective t h a n killed ones in promoting better immunity (Levine et ah, 1983; Dougan et ah, 1987; Roantree, 1967). With respect to S. typhi, vaccines containing the inactivated bacteria offer only limited and transient protection with undesirable side-effects (Levine, et ah, 1983).

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